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Global Security Review – globalsecurityreview.org: 7:51 AM 10/1/2019 – My Blogs By Michael Novakhov


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Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
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FBI Releases 2018 Crime Statistics — FBI

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

For the second consecutive year, the estimated number of violent crimes in the nation decreased when compared with the previous year’s statistics, according to FBI figures released today. In 2018, violent crime was down 3.3 percent from the 2017 number. Property crimes also dropped 6.3 percent, marking the 16th consecutive year the collective estimates for these offenses declined.
The 2018 statistics show the estimated rate of violent crime was 368.9 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, and the estimated rate of property crime was 2,199.5 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. The violent crime rate fell 3.9 percent when compared with the 2017 rate; the property crime rate declined 6.9 percent.
These and additional data are presented in the 2018 edition of the FBI’s annual report Crime in the United States. This publication is a statistical compilation of offense, arrest, and police employee data reported by law enforcement agencies voluntarily participating in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
The UCR Program collects information on crimes reported by law enforcement agencies regarding the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, as well as the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. (The FBI classifies arson as a property crime, but does not estimate arson data because of variations in the level of participation by the reporting agencies. Consequently, arson data is not included in the property crime estimate.) The program also collects arrest data for the offenses listed above plus 20 offenses that include all other crimes except traffic violations.
Of the 18,586 federal, state, county, city, university and college, and tribal agencies eligible to participate in the UCR Program, 16,659 agencies submitted data in 2018. A high-level summary of the statistics submitted, as well as estimates for those agencies that did not report, follows:
  • In 2018, there were an estimated 1,206,836 violent crimes. The estimated number of three violent crime offenses decreased when compared with estimates from 2017. Robbery offenses fell 12.0 percent, murder and nonnegligent manslaughter offenses fell 6.2 percent, and the estimated volume of aggravated assault offenses decreased 0.4 percent. The estimated volume of rape (revised definition) offenses increased 2.7 percent.
  • Nationwide, there were an estimated 7,196,045 property crimes. The estimated numbers for all three property crimes showed declines when compared with the previous year’s estimates. Burglaries dropped 11.9 percent, larceny-thefts decreased 5.4 percent, and motor vehicle thefts were down 3.1 percent.
  • Collectively, victims of property crimes (excluding arson) suffered losses estimated at $16.4 billion in 2018.
  • The FBI estimated law enforcement agencies nationwide made 10.3 million arrests, (excluding those for traffic violations) in 2018.
  • The arrest rate for violent crime was 159.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the arrest rate for property crime was 361.2 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • By violent crime offense, the arrest rate for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter was 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants; rape (aggregate total using the revised and legacy definition), 7.7; robbery, 27.2; and aggravated assault, 121.4 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • Of the property crime offenses, the arrest rate for burglary was 54.9 per 100,000 inhabitants; larceny-theft, 275.5; and motor vehicle theft, 28.1. The arrest rate for arson was 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • In 2018, 13,497 law enforcement agencies reported their staffing levels to the FBI. These agencies reported that, as of October 31, 2018, they collectively employed 686,665 sworn officers and 288,640 civilians—a rate of 3.4 employees per 1,000 inhabitants.
Caution Against Ranking: Each year when Crime in the United States is published, some entities use the figures to compile rankings of cities and counties. These rough rankings provide no insight into the numerous variables that mold crime in a particular town, city, county, state, tribal area, or region. Consequently, they lead to simplistic and/or incomplete analyses that often create misleading perceptions adversely affecting communities and their residents. Valid assessments are possible only with careful study and analysis of the range of unique conditions affecting each local law enforcement jurisdiction. The data user is, therefore, cautioned against comparing crime data of individual reporting units from cities, metropolitan areas, states, or colleges or universities solely on the basis of their population coverage or student enrollment.
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

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Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

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US Citizen in California Accused of Spying for Chinese …

TIME14 hours ago
FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from The Strategist (blog)

Chinese investment—risky business?

The Strategist (blog)Sep 11, 2019
However, the film carries another, more subtle double-edged … Christopher Wray has claimed that China poses a more serious … David Petraeus said experts assess the top security threat facing the US as ‘all … Programs such as the US’s National Counterintelligence and Security Center’s ‘Know the risk, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Associated Press

FBI chief Wray deflects Russia questions and suggests China …

MarketWatchJul 23, 2019
Christopher Wray says the FBI has more than 1,000 open investigations on … FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious … Chris Wray says no country poses greater counterintelligence threat than China.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from WTOP

The Fog of Espionage, Part 1: Millions of spies target the US …

WTOPSep 23, 2019
Simmons worked in counterintelligence at DIA, where the job was to find and … FBI director Christopher Wray acknowledged as much in a 2018 speech at … viewed as more sophisticated — their country has a century-old tradition of … America, no country poses a greater threat than China,” Evanina said.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from TIME

FBI Chief Says China Is Trying to ‘Steal Their Way’ to …

TIMEJul 24, 2019
FBI Director Christopher Wray told senators that China is engaging in a sweeping … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this … He said some major universities have essentially created a …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from FRANCE 24

FBI director lashes China over economic espionage

FRANCE 24Apr 26, 2019
China poses the most serious intelligence threat to the United States … economic ladder” at US expense, FBI Director Christopher Wray said Friday. … “Economic espionage dominates our counter-intelligence program today,” … “China has pioneered a societal approach to stealing innovation in any way it …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Reuters

US spy chiefs break with Trump on many threats to the US

ReutersJan 29, 2019
Trump has said the country no longer poses a threat. … “The Chinese counterintelligence threat is more deep, more diverse, more vexing, more … counterintelligence threat I can think of,” FBI Director Christopher Wray said.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Council on Foreign Relations

A Conversation With Christopher Wray

Council on Foreign RelationsApr 15, 2019
And no country poses a broader, more severe intelligence collection …. We’ll get to China in a minute, because you had a lot to say about China. … I do think that Russia poses a very significant counterintelligence threat, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Inkstone

The FBI director taking aim at China

InkstoneMay 3, 2019
Wray’s scathing critique last week of what he called China’s attempts to … FBI director Christopher Wray speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations … Beijing’s “soft power” initiatives and more serious security threats. … Despite accusing China of posing a “whole-of-society” threat to the US, Wray has drawn …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Washington Post

National security isn’t a bargaining chip with China

Washington PostJul 26, 2019
Kudlow, like Mnuchin, has been playing down the threat of Chinese economic aggression in part to advocate for U.S. … “I would say that there is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country right now than China,” FBI Director Christopher A. Wray testified this week. “China is …
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

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California tour operator charged with passing US state secrets …

https://www.theguardian.com › sep › us-china-spy-charges-state-secrets

14 hours ago – The FBI director, Christopher Wrayhas said China poses a more serious counter-intelligence threat to the United States than any other country …

9NEWS (KUSA) – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said …

https://www.facebook.com › posts › fbi-director-christopher-wray-has-said…

9 hours ago – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …

China ‘determined to steal up economic ladder at US’ expense …

https://www.scmp.com › News › China › Politics

Christopher Wray, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), speaks … Wray said, calling the intelligence threat posed by China “broader [and] more severe” … that the FBI had unleashed a counter-intelligence operation to bar Chinese ….. The former top US trade official said the city was in a “dangerous situation” …

The Latest: FBI Chief Wray Says China Poses a Serious Threat

https://www.usnews.com › Civic › Political News

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious … but has spoken in some detail about the threat he says is posed by China.

FBI chief Wray deflects Russia questions and suggests China …

https://www.marketwatch.com › Economy & Politics › Associated Press

Jul 23, 2019 – Wray says the FBI has over 1000 open investigations on attempted intellectual … and suggests China is now a bigger counterintelligence threat to U.S. … FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious …

California tour guide accused of spying for China – MarketWatch

https://www.marketwatch.com › General › National news › Associated Press

13 hours ago – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray told the Senate Judiciary Committee that … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this … China has rebuffed U.S. complaints of intellectual property theft and …
Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China right now poses a more serious counter-intelligence threat to the United States than any other …

FBI Director Names China the Nation’s Most ‘Severe … – Nextgov

https://www.nextgov.com › cybersecurity › 2019/07 › fbi-director-names-…

Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray Susan Walsh/AP … directed at Russia have impacted the country’s operations, Wray said that “until they … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country …

FBI director pegs China as the most ‘severe …

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com › news › fbi-director-pegs-china-as-…

Jul 24, 2019 – Wray added that the second greatest counterintelligence challenge was “probably Russia. … Emphasizing his point, Wray called the threat posed by China “deep and diverse and wide and vexing … “Is it fair to say that everything we’ve done against Russia has not deterred them enough … Christopher Wray.

FBI’s Wray sounds alarm over China, warns of ‘severe …

https://www.foxnews.com › politics › wray-says-china-poses-severe-counteri…

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray warned Congress on Tuesday that China poses “a more severe counterintelligence threat” to the United States … Wray said, though, that the FBI has “probably about 1,000 plus investigations all …
Jul 24, 2019 – China strikes back at FBI chief’s allegations over intelligence threat … States, saying China has secured its remarkable achievements through its own wisdom and hard work. According to media reports, FBI Director Christopher Wray said that China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the …

FBI has 1,000 probes ongoing into Chinese intellectual …

https://www.japantimes.co.jp › news › 2019/07/24 › business › fbi-1000-pro…

Jul 24, 2019 – Christopher Wray, director of the FBI, swears in to a Senate Judiciary Committee … Wray said during the hearing that China is the biggest … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this …

FBI director tallies threats: Domestic terrorism, China, Russia …

wjla.com › news › nation-world › fbi-director-tallies-threats-domestic-terro…

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray testified before the Senate Judiciary … Cruz pressed the FBI director to assess the organization and said he is … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country right … The companies China has targeted range in size and influence from …
6:41 AM 10/1/2019 – My Blogs – Web Review: US citizen accused of spying on behalf of Chinese government

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US citizen spied for China – Google Search

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US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
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US citizen spied for China – Google Search
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Global Security Review – globalsecurityreview.org: 1. US Security from Michael_Novakhov (88 sites): Eurasia Review: Singapore’s Decision To Boost Navy’s Operational And Combat Capabilities – Analysis


By Bahauddin Foizee*

As the Pacific waters are increasingly
becoming unstable geopolitically, the city-state of Singapore is focusing more
on strenghtening its naval capabilities in order to protect its interests in
the regional waters. With the aim of withstanding any potential assault by a
bigger regional navy, Singapore is acquiring new naval assets, including
submarines.

New Equipment

The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) is acquiring four Type-218SG submarines from Germany. This procurement is expected to boost the operational capabilities of Singpore’s submarine fleet and combat capabilities of the RSN as a whole. Keeping in mind the shallow and busy waters surrounding Singapore’s coastlines, these new Type-218SG submarines are specifically customised for Singapore so that they do not face any difficulties when operating in the congested waters. The ability, capacity and durability of these new submarines will be far superior than the existing vessels in the RSN’s submarine fleet. They can carry between 18 to 21 torpedoes, and an Air Independent Propulsion system means they can stay underwater for long periods without having to surface. Importantly, upgrade options include long-range missiles for carrying out offensive strikes with minor modifications. Singapore’s acquisition of submarines decades ago had suprised many owing to the offensive nature of submarines, essentially as the primary role of a submarine is to destroy enemy targets and conduct surveillance on foreign coasts to gather vital intelligence as opposed to surface navy vessels which generally play both peacetime and wartime roles.

Alongside the acquisition of Type-218SG
submarines, Singapore is also procuring the Joint
Multi-Mission Ships
, which have the potential to launch limited aircraft carrier operations. It is also actively introducing
unmanned platforms into its armed forces’ arsenal, including procurement of new
navy vessels which will have unmanned
aerial vehicles (drones) and unmanned vessels
to allow the RSN motherships
to preempt enemy’s threats.

This expansion of the RSN’s submarine force
and the acquisition of limited aircraft carrier capabilities could indicate Singapore’s
intention to play a far more active role in the region than it currently does.

Why Upgrade Now?

With an aim to strengthen its dominance in the South China Sea (SCS) and the Indo-Pacific, China has been constantly boosting its naval capabilities through regular procurement of aircraft carriers and submarines. In order to counter China in their region, several Southeast Asian countries appear to be following a similar trajectory as that of Singapore. In particular, they are focusing on acquiring new submarines to enhance their naval capabilities, alongside acquiring other naval assets. For example, Indonesia is adding six new attack submarines, and Vietnam too has already acquired six submarines from Russia. Similarly, the President of the Phillipines, Rodrigo Duterte, approved a plan to acquire two submarines and a number of other vessels as part of its naval modernisation efforts. The number of submarines in the arsenals of the Southeast Asian navies has increased by 300per cent in last 20 years, with an increase in numbers from four to 16. With four more additions expected, the increase will signify a 400 per cent increase.

It is also worth noting here that Australia,
India, and Japan, with the US, are in the process of shaping a latent alliance,
known as the Quadrilateral, which could be deployed to counter China’s rising
military expansion.

While the China threat remains at the centre
of Southeast Asian naval expansion, Malaysia remains another concern for
Singapore. The two countries share a turbulent relationship since the time of
Singapore’s independence from Malaysia in 1965. Their realtionship further
deteriorated when in 2018, Malaysia stated its plan
to further stretch
the border of its Johor Bahru port into a maritime
territory over which Singapore too claims sovereignty. The Malaysian navy’s
recent ‘15 to 5 Transformation Program/Plan’—aimed
at standarising its naval capabilities through reduction in the classes of ship
from 15 to 5—has further perturbed Singapore.

Thus, Singapore’s
plan to bolster its naval capabilities through procurement of these advanced
vessels has dual aspects. First, of keeping up with the pace of other regional
navies, and second, to deter alongside friendly navies, any potential threat
from larger navies like those of China and, to a lesser extent, Malaysia.

*Bahauddin Foizee is a geopolitical analyst and international affairs columnist, focusing on the Asia-Pacific/Indo-Pacific and the Middle East.

The post Singapore’s Decision To Boost Navy’s Operational And Combat Capabilities – Analysis appeared first on Eurasia Review.

Eurasia Review

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Global Security Review – globalsecurityreview.org: 7:51 AM 10/1/2019 – My Blogs By Michael Novakhov


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FBI Releases 2018 Crime Statistics — FBI
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search
6:41 AM 10/1/2019 – My Blogs – Web Review: US citizen accused of spying on behalf of Chinese government
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen spied for China – Google Search
US citizen accused of spying on behalf of Chinese government | abc10.com
my Blogs By Michael Novakhov – Google Search
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Forensics & Forensic Science | Infographics

Interested in Forensic Science? Dive into our newest infographic, where you’ll learn about the history of forensics, the different disciplines and more | Infographics
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FBI – Google Search

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FBI – Google Search

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FBI – Google Search

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FBI – Google Search

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

FBI Releases 2018 Crime Statistics — FBI

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

For the second consecutive year, the estimated number of violent crimes in the nation decreased when compared with the previous year’s statistics, according to FBI figures released today. In 2018, violent crime was down 3.3 percent from the 2017 number. Property crimes also dropped 6.3 percent, marking the 16th consecutive year the collective estimates for these offenses declined.
The 2018 statistics show the estimated rate of violent crime was 368.9 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, and the estimated rate of property crime was 2,199.5 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. The violent crime rate fell 3.9 percent when compared with the 2017 rate; the property crime rate declined 6.9 percent.
These and additional data are presented in the 2018 edition of the FBI’s annual report Crime in the United States. This publication is a statistical compilation of offense, arrest, and police employee data reported by law enforcement agencies voluntarily participating in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
The UCR Program collects information on crimes reported by law enforcement agencies regarding the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, as well as the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. (The FBI classifies arson as a property crime, but does not estimate arson data because of variations in the level of participation by the reporting agencies. Consequently, arson data is not included in the property crime estimate.) The program also collects arrest data for the offenses listed above plus 20 offenses that include all other crimes except traffic violations.
Of the 18,586 federal, state, county, city, university and college, and tribal agencies eligible to participate in the UCR Program, 16,659 agencies submitted data in 2018. A high-level summary of the statistics submitted, as well as estimates for those agencies that did not report, follows:
  • In 2018, there were an estimated 1,206,836 violent crimes. The estimated number of three violent crime offenses decreased when compared with estimates from 2017. Robbery offenses fell 12.0 percent, murder and nonnegligent manslaughter offenses fell 6.2 percent, and the estimated volume of aggravated assault offenses decreased 0.4 percent. The estimated volume of rape (revised definition) offenses increased 2.7 percent.
  • Nationwide, there were an estimated 7,196,045 property crimes. The estimated numbers for all three property crimes showed declines when compared with the previous year’s estimates. Burglaries dropped 11.9 percent, larceny-thefts decreased 5.4 percent, and motor vehicle thefts were down 3.1 percent.
  • Collectively, victims of property crimes (excluding arson) suffered losses estimated at $16.4 billion in 2018.
  • The FBI estimated law enforcement agencies nationwide made 10.3 million arrests, (excluding those for traffic violations) in 2018.
  • The arrest rate for violent crime was 159.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the arrest rate for property crime was 361.2 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • By violent crime offense, the arrest rate for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter was 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants; rape (aggregate total using the revised and legacy definition), 7.7; robbery, 27.2; and aggravated assault, 121.4 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • Of the property crime offenses, the arrest rate for burglary was 54.9 per 100,000 inhabitants; larceny-theft, 275.5; and motor vehicle theft, 28.1. The arrest rate for arson was 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • In 2018, 13,497 law enforcement agencies reported their staffing levels to the FBI. These agencies reported that, as of October 31, 2018, they collectively employed 686,665 sworn officers and 288,640 civilians—a rate of 3.4 employees per 1,000 inhabitants.
Caution Against Ranking: Each year when Crime in the United States is published, some entities use the figures to compile rankings of cities and counties. These rough rankings provide no insight into the numerous variables that mold crime in a particular town, city, county, state, tribal area, or region. Consequently, they lead to simplistic and/or incomplete analyses that often create misleading perceptions adversely affecting communities and their residents. Valid assessments are possible only with careful study and analysis of the range of unique conditions affecting each local law enforcement jurisdiction. The data user is, therefore, cautioned against comparing crime data of individual reporting units from cities, metropolitan areas, states, or colleges or universities solely on the basis of their population coverage or student enrollment.
Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

14 hours ago
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Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat – Google Search

Michael_Novakhov shared this story from “Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat” – Google News.

Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from TIME

US Citizen in California Accused of Spying for Chinese …

TIME14 hours ago
FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from The Strategist (blog)

Chinese investment—risky business?

The Strategist (blog)Sep 11, 2019
However, the film carries another, more subtle double-edged … Christopher Wray has claimed that China poses a more serious … David Petraeus said experts assess the top security threat facing the US as ‘all … Programs such as the US’s National Counterintelligence and Security Center’s ‘Know the risk, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Associated Press

FBI chief Wray deflects Russia questions and suggests China …

MarketWatchJul 23, 2019
Christopher Wray says the FBI has more than 1,000 open investigations on … FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious … Chris Wray says no country poses greater counterintelligence threat than China.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from WTOP

The Fog of Espionage, Part 1: Millions of spies target the US …

WTOPSep 23, 2019
Simmons worked in counterintelligence at DIA, where the job was to find and … FBI director Christopher Wray acknowledged as much in a 2018 speech at … viewed as more sophisticated — their country has a century-old tradition of … America, no country poses a greater threat than China,” Evanina said.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from TIME

FBI Chief Says China Is Trying to ‘Steal Their Way’ to …

TIMEJul 24, 2019
FBI Director Christopher Wray told senators that China is engaging in a sweeping … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this … He said some major universities have essentially created a …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from FRANCE 24

FBI director lashes China over economic espionage

FRANCE 24Apr 26, 2019
China poses the most serious intelligence threat to the United States … economic ladder” at US expense, FBI Director Christopher Wray said Friday. … “Economic espionage dominates our counter-intelligence program today,” … “China has pioneered a societal approach to stealing innovation in any way it …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Reuters

US spy chiefs break with Trump on many threats to the US

ReutersJan 29, 2019
Trump has said the country no longer poses a threat. … “The Chinese counterintelligence threat is more deep, more diverse, more vexing, more … counterintelligence threat I can think of,” FBI Director Christopher Wray said.
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Council on Foreign Relations

A Conversation With Christopher Wray

Council on Foreign RelationsApr 15, 2019
And no country poses a broader, more severe intelligence collection …. We’ll get to China in a minute, because you had a lot to say about China. … I do think that Russia poses a very significant counterintelligence threat, …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Inkstone

The FBI director taking aim at China

InkstoneMay 3, 2019
Wray’s scathing critique last week of what he called China’s attempts to … FBI director Christopher Wray speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations … Beijing’s “soft power” initiatives and more serious security threats. … Despite accusing China of posing a “whole-of-society” threat to the US, Wray has drawn …
Story image for Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat from Washington Post

National security isn’t a bargaining chip with China

Washington PostJul 26, 2019
Kudlow, like Mnuchin, has been playing down the threat of Chinese economic aggression in part to advocate for U.S. … “I would say that there is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country right now than China,” FBI Director Christopher A. Wray testified this week. “China is …
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California tour operator charged with passing US state secrets …

https://www.theguardian.com › sep › us-china-spy-charges-state-secrets

14 hours ago – The FBI director, Christopher Wrayhas said China poses a more serious counter-intelligence threat to the United States than any other country …

9NEWS (KUSA) – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said …

https://www.facebook.com › posts › fbi-director-christopher-wray-has-said…

9 hours ago – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …

China ‘determined to steal up economic ladder at US’ expense …

https://www.scmp.com › News › China › Politics

Christopher Wray, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), speaks … Wray said, calling the intelligence threat posed by China “broader [and] more severe” … that the FBI had unleashed a counter-intelligence operation to bar Chinese ….. The former top US trade official said the city was in a “dangerous situation” …

The Latest: FBI Chief Wray Says China Poses a Serious Threat

https://www.usnews.com › Civic › Political News

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious … but has spoken in some detail about the threat he says is posed by China.

FBI chief Wray deflects Russia questions and suggests China …

https://www.marketwatch.com › Economy & Politics › Associated Press

Jul 23, 2019 – Wray says the FBI has over 1000 open investigations on attempted intellectual … and suggests China is now a bigger counterintelligence threat to U.S. … FBI Director Christopher Wray says China poses a more serious …

California tour guide accused of spying for China – MarketWatch

https://www.marketwatch.com › General › National news › Associated Press

13 hours ago – FBI Director Christopher Wray has said China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the United States than any other country, …
Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray told the Senate Judiciary Committee that … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this … China has rebuffed U.S. complaints of intellectual property theft and …
Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray says China right now poses a more serious counter-intelligence threat to the United States than any other …

FBI Director Names China the Nation’s Most ‘Severe … – Nextgov

https://www.nextgov.com › cybersecurity › 2019/07 › fbi-director-names-…

Jul 24, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray Susan Walsh/AP … directed at Russia have impacted the country’s operations, Wray said that “until they … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country …

FBI director pegs China as the most ‘severe …

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com › news › fbi-director-pegs-china-as-…

Jul 24, 2019 – Wray added that the second greatest counterintelligence challenge was “probably Russia. … Emphasizing his point, Wray called the threat posed by China “deep and diverse and wide and vexing … “Is it fair to say that everything we’ve done against Russia has not deterred them enough … Christopher Wray.

FBI’s Wray sounds alarm over China, warns of ‘severe …

https://www.foxnews.com › politics › wray-says-china-poses-severe-counteri…

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray warned Congress on Tuesday that China poses “a more severe counterintelligence threat” to the United States … Wray said, though, that the FBI has “probably about 1,000 plus investigations all …
Jul 24, 2019 – China strikes back at FBI chief’s allegations over intelligence threat … States, saying China has secured its remarkable achievements through its own wisdom and hard work. According to media reports, FBI Director Christopher Wray said that China poses a more serious counterintelligence threat to the …

FBI has 1,000 probes ongoing into Chinese intellectual …

https://www.japantimes.co.jp › news › 2019/07/24 › business › fbi-1000-pro…

Jul 24, 2019 – Christopher Wray, director of the FBI, swears in to a Senate Judiciary Committee … Wray said during the hearing that China is the biggest … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this …

FBI director tallies threats: Domestic terrorism, China, Russia …

wjla.com › news › nation-world › fbi-director-tallies-threats-domestic-terro…

Jul 23, 2019 – FBI Director Christopher Wray testified before the Senate Judiciary … Cruz pressed the FBI director to assess the organization and said he is … “There is no country that poses a more severe counterintelligence threat to this country right … The companies China has targeted range in size and influence from …
6:41 AM 10/1/2019 – My Blogs – Web Review: US citizen accused of spying on behalf of Chinese government

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FBI Reform: Eurasia Review: Book On Wisdom As Tribute To Mahatma Gandhi


In the context of 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and by way of paying tribute to his philosophy of wisdom and truth, Nandini Voice for the Deprived, a Chennai based NGO has released a book on “What is wisdom and why is it necessary?”

The book is authored by N.S. Venkataraman, Trustee, Nandini Voice for the Deprived. The book defines wisdom and goes on to lament that the world is in turmoil today mainly due to lack of wisdom among large section of people around the world including political leaders in different countries.

While the need for wisdom is the central theme of all religious scripture , somehow it has not made an impact on the mindset of most people. After discussing various issues relating to wisdom, the book goes on to advocate the need for introducing three months compulsory course in schools all over the world on the importance of wisdom, for the benefit of children in the formative age group. When children grow up with awareness about the need of wisdom, it will have a positive impact on the global scenario, promoting love harmony and peace.

The book has appealed to United Nations Secretary General to organize a world conference on the need for wisdom and adopt a resolution in the UN, where all member countries would pledge themselves to promote the cause of wisdom, as it has been done in the case of the yoga movement.

The post Book On Wisdom As Tribute To Mahatma Gandhi appeared first on Eurasia Review.

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FBI Reform: Eurasia Review: Baha’ism’s Early Roots In Bombay – Analysis


India has the largest number of Baha’is in the world today, followers of the world’s newest religion, which was founded in 19th century Persia. Persecuted in their own country, they came to Bombay, which was already home to many Iranians, to purvey the message of their faith.

By Sifra Lentin*

On 29 and 30 October 2019, India’s Baha’i community of about 1.8 to 2 million,[1] will celebrate the 200th birth anniversary of the Bab, Siyyed Ali Muhammad Shirazi. This is a landmark event for the world’s newest religion and Bombay had an important role to play in its early dissemination[2].

Bahai’sm, a religion devoid of pageantry, ritual or a priestly class, is not as visible in practice the way followers of older religions, such as Hinduism are. The Bab (‘Messenger’), the most important historic figure in the Baha’i religion, proclaimed in 1844 that the arrival of a new Prophet (Baha’ullah) was imminent. This animated Messianic movements in Persia, like the Shaikhis and others (who became known as Babis). It also brought a violent backlash from the then ruling Qajar Dynasty and the orthodox Shia Ulema on grounds of religious heresy, impelling its followers to flee[3]. Even today, though the Baha’is are the largest minority in Iran, they are still persecuted.

Most of the historic events to do with Baha’ism took place in West Asia,[4] but  the port and city of Bombay played an important role in its early growth in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries[5]. The city provided refuge to the persecuted Babis, and later, Baha’is; it was a base from which the teaching spread; and the place where the faith’s earliest foundational texts, written by Baha’ullah himself, were printed and  disseminated – to Persia and the  world.

The  first Baha’i National Convention, held on the lawns of Bombay  University’s Fort campus, in 1920. From left, the multi-lingual Siyyid  Mustafa Rumi (fifth), who accompanied Baha’i teacher Jamal Effendi on  his tours; Narayan Rao Shethji Vakil (eighth), and just behind him,  Pritam Singh, the first Sikh to become a Baha’i.
The first Baha’i National Convention, held on the lawns of Bombay University’s Fort campus, in 1920. From left, the multi-lingual Siyyid Mustafa Rumi (fifth), who accompanied Baha’i teacher Jamal Effendi on his tours; Narayan Rao Shethji Vakil (eighth), and just behind him, Pritam Singh, the first Sikh to become a Baha’i.

Bombay’s sizeable Iranian population from the 1840s onwards was a draw and here was a foreign, multicultural setting where the teachings of the Bab and Baha’ullah could be imparted without fear of retribution.

The Baha’is believe that every Divine Revelation (whether Krishna, Zoroaster or Baha’ullah, after whom they are named) are progressive manifestations of One God, each propagating teachings relevant for their times, and that Baha’ullah, the most recent Prophet to appear, is not the last. Baha’ism emphasises internationalism and pacifism – anyone can access it without abandoning their own religion [6] – gender equality, and community development, not only of its own people, but also that of the host country.

The Afnan family in Bombay

In Bombay, the first to play host to the early Babi and Baha’i teachers were the direct descendants of the Bab’s family, the Afnans, who had opened two trading firms, Messrs. Haji Sayed Mirza and Mirza Mahmood Co.,[7] as early as the 1850s, on Apollo Street within the city’s Fort precinct.  Mirza and Mahmood, and the merchant followers of the Bab and Baha’ullah, provided the logistical and monetary support for the spread of Baha’i teachings, such as the three tours of British India and the Indian Princely States that Baha’i preacher, Jamal Effendi, undertook from 1875 to 1896. Effendi made the Afnans’ office in Bombay his base.

A member of the Afnan family also set up the Nasiri Press in the city in the early 1880s, which was the first to print Baha’ullah’s earliest writings,[8] two in Persian and a third in Arabic. These holy books were distributed by Baha’is across Iran, the Ottoman Empire, North Africa, and India.

As the Baha’i teachers sent from Iran were Persian speakers, they were only mostly able to talk to other Iranians about their faith – and use some unorthodox ways to reach the young. Zena (Fozdar) Sorabjee [9], Vice Chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is in India, recounts how her grandfather, Mehraban Behjat, was exposed as a young man to Baha’i teachings through a wise man, Mirza Mahram. Baha’ism proscribes drinking, but rather than be prescriptive or judgemental, the teacher decided to use the convivial atmosphere of a bar to show how such indulgence could be misguided by pointing to an inebriated member of their own group. Shocked, all the young men turned instantly to Baha’ism.

Mahram also attracted into the Baha’i fold the first Hindu, the orthodox, well-educated Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji (Vakil), a lawyer in the Bombay High Court and in Surat.[10]

Faredoon Nooreyezdan, working in the gardens of the Shrine of the Bab on Mount Carmel, Haifa, in 1936.
Faredoon Nooreyezdan, working in the gardens of the Shrine of the Bab on Mount Carmel, Haifa, in 1936.

The spread of the Baha’i faith among Iranians in Bombay (mostly Zoroastrians) led them, in turn, to take the teachings to family and friends during visits home to the provinces of Yazd and Kerman. Sheriar Nooreyezdan, an elderly member of the Mumbai community, and one who writes on Baha’ism, remembers how his father, Faredoon, learnt of the Baha’i Faith in his village Nasrabad (Yazd) through a visitor from Bombay. Bahmard Vajdi, his mother’s uncle, was the owner of New Edward Bakery in Bombay, for whom Faredoon later worked. “Vajdi was very outspoken and fearless in his views even in those days when it wasn’t safe to be known as a Baha’i in Iran,” says Nooreyezdan. His father was the first family member to recognise Baha’ullah as the World Redeemer as predicted in Zoroastrian scriptures and he accepted the Baha’i faith[11].

Bombay pilgrims in 19th century Palestine

Many of Bombay’s early Baha’is undertook the arduous journey by sea to Haifa, Palestine, to visit the Shrine of The Bab, the House of Abdul Baha in Bahji or the caves in the nearby Fortress of Akka, where Baha’ullah was imprisoned. For example, Nooreyezdan’s father, Faredoon, set out on a pilgrimage in 1936. He took a steamer from Bombay to Haifa and arrived in erstwhile Palestine, then under British administration, in June that year. “Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Baha’i Faith and great-grandson of Baha’u’llah, was then away on work in Europe,” recalls Nooreyezdan. “My father stayed on in Haifa, working in the Baha’i Shrine gardens on Mount Carmel until the Guardian’s return. Shoghi Effendi then sent my father on two errands with messages to the Baha’is of Beirut and Alexandria.”

Guardian  of the Faith, Abdul Baha (centre), surrounded by Indian and local  Baha’is on the steps of his home in Bahji, near Haifa.
Guardian of the Faith, Abdul Baha (centre), surrounded by Indian and local Baha’is on the steps of his home in Bahji, near Haifa.

Nooreyezdan’s wife, Ruhi, also recalls how her parents, Faredoon and
Shirin Mahabat, undertook the same pilgrimages in the early 20th
century, but separately, indicating that many of the older Bombay
Baha’i families were part of the circulations of pilgrims, teachers, and
ideas between Bombay and erstwhile Palestine, the headquarters of the
faith. Such close interaction could have led to the early
institutionalisation of the religion in India. Bombay was home to the
first Baha’i Local Spiritual Assembly in the sub-continent in 1911. This
democratically elected body was set up at the village, town or city
level, to administer the religious, educational, social and charitable
activities of the community. Community members volunteer to conduct
prayers on religious days and during rites of passage.

The first National Convention of Baha’is in India (which then
included Sindh and Burma) was also held in Bombay in 1920 to elect the
first Baha’i National Spiritual Assembly of India (NSA). It was upon a
petition from the Burmese delegation at this Convention that Abdul Baha
(the eldest son of the Prophet and interpreter of his writings),
responded, permitting the building of a temple in the national capital.
The Baha’i Lotus Temple, a spectacular structure, came up 66 years later
(in 1986) in New Delhi, which is also the headquarters of the NSA.

Today, Mumbai does not have too many Baha’is, their number hard to
ascertain, but the city’s importance to the history of their faith is
indelible. To enshrine its singular role as an axis for the spread of
Baha’ism across the sub-continent and South East Asia, Shoghi Effendi
anointed Mumbai’s Baha’is as the “Mother Community” of India.

About the author: Sifra Lentin is Bombay History Fellow, Gateway House.

Source: This article was written for Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations. This is the last of a three-part series. Read the first part here.

References

[1] The Baha’i population in India is the largest in the world at 1,897,651 persons in 2015, with the United States having the second largest population after India of 512,864 in 2010. It is also considered the most geographically widespread religion in the world as it has a presence in every country with the exception of North Korea and Vatican City. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/countries-with-the-largest-baha-i-populations.html  (Accessed on 24 September 2019) Also, http://www.bahai.in/bahai-faith-in-india/ (Accessed on 24 September 2019)

[2] For more information of on the history of the Bahai religion, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bahaism-i (Accessed on 20 September 2019)

[3] According to orthodox Islam, Mohammed is the last Prophet of God.

[4] The main historic events in the Baha’i faith unfolded in West Asia and are marked as religious days on the Baha’i calendar. Some of these days are the birth of the Bab and Baha’ullah, the proclamation of the Bab in 1844 of the imminent arrival of a Prophet, the revelation of Baha’ullah as the World Redeemer in 1863, and the death anniversaries of the Bab and Baha’u’llah.

Baha’is have their own calendar of 19 months of 19 days each, which
add up to 361 days. The four (or five days in a leap year) that are
added are inter-calary days.

[5] Even as early as 1844, when the Bab proclaimed the coming of a Prophet, it prompted the allegiance of an Indian Muslim Sayyid Basir, who set off from Bombay for Iran. Basir became a prominent Babi and was executed one year after the execution of the Bab in 1950.

Green, Nile, Bombay Islam: The Religious Economy Of The West Indian Ocean, 1840-1915 (New Delhi, Cambridge University Press, 2011), p.122.

[6] Baha’ullah envisaged a globalized world without borders and with inter-dependent nations. A federal system of world government with a world parliament, judiciary, and army at its command, in order to enact laws and ensure peace across the globe. He also elucidated on a system of holistic education for all not only in their mother tongue but also in an international language that will help the removal of linguistic barriers between people.

[7] There are no descendants of the Afnan family in Mumbai anymore. According to Zena Sorabjee (interviewed on 9 September 2019), the Afnans’ never brought their families here but had trading firms in the city as it was a midpoint and important port that lay between Persia and China.

[8] The Nasiri Press was the first to print Baha’ullah’s earliest writings, three foundational texts on the Baha’i religion namely, the Book of Certitude, the Book of Laws, and The Secret of Divine Revelation.

[9] Zena (Fozdar) Sorabjee’s mother, Shirin Fozdar, was a globally renowned women’s right’s activist, and even when her husband Dr Khodabux Fozdar (among the early Parsis to accept the Baha’i faith) was posted to Singapore, she was very active in the women’s suffragette movement there.

[10] According to Prof. Dipchand Khianra, a former professor of Persian in the city’s Jaihind College, in his book Immortals (1988), “He (Vakil) was a seeker of Truth, he finally realised that Baha’ullah was the return of Lord Krishna and had come to bring unity among people of different religions.”

Khianra, Dipchand, Immortals (New Delhi, Baha’i Publishing Trust, 1988), p.9.

[11] Sheriar Nooreyezdan points out that by accepting the Baha’i Faith did not mean abandoning their Zoroastrian religion, as in fact the revelation of Baha’ullah as the World Redeemer is in fact a confirmation of their belief in the prophecies of their ancestral religion. (Interviewed on 11 September 2019)

The post Baha’ism’s Early Roots In Bombay – Analysis appeared first on Eurasia Review.

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FBI Reform: Eurasia Review: A Turning Point In The Bond Market? – Analysis


We’ve recently seen a lot of coverage and even more “expert analyses”
on the state of the bond market, to the extent that the average
investor, or the average citizen for that matter, is likely to be
overwhelmed and very confused about what it all means. Experts from the
institutional side and defenders of the current monetary direction argue
that it is all the result of policy choices, that’s it’s all under
control and that we really shouldn’t worry about the extreme phenomena
and distortions we now see in the debt markets. However, it hardly takes
an economist or a monetary policy expert to spot the many faults of
this position.

Reality check

To strike at the core of this issue, we only need to examine a very
basic question: Would you lend me $100 and agree to receive $90 in
return? Somehow, I doubt I’d find many takers for this deal, yet when it
comes to the bond market, this is where we are. As of the end of last
month, 30% of all investment-grade bonds, amounting to over $17
trillion, have negative yields, meaning that buy-and-hold investors are
guaranteed to make a loss.

And then there’s another simple thought experiment: Given the fact that there’s an opportunity cost to consider, inflation and that there’s always a risk of default in any loan, would you demand a higher interest to lend someone money for a week or for 30 years? While most rational people would naturally expect to be compensated more for a longer-term loan, the market has turned this notion on its head. In August we saw exactly that, short-term bonds paying more than long-term bonds, in what financial publications called the “inverted yield curve”, a phenomenon we haven’t seen since the beginning of the last recession. While mainstream commentators were quick to dismiss the importance of this move, conservative investors and experienced market observers sounded the alarm, especially as they pointed out the historic correlation between the inversion and the start of a recession. In fact, the inversion has preceded every single recession in the past 50 years, with only one false signal.

More recently we also saw flashing warning signs from a sudden spike
in repo rates. The $1 trillion repo market allows banks to lend money to
each other overnight and rates usually range around 1.5% – 2.25%. In
late September, a liquidity crunch forced rates much higher, while some
repo rates exploded to almost 10%. This pushed the federal funds rate
higher, shooting past the upper limit of the Fed’s own target range,
raising serious questions about whether the central bank is actually
losing control of its monetary policy. This anomaly was strongly
reminiscent of the 2007 housing market crash, when repo markets also
suddenly tightened right before the crash, while it also provided a
clear indicator that there aren’t enough reserves in the financial
system for repo markets to function at the Fed’s target levels. This
shortage of cash forced the Fed to intervene and provide the missing
liquidity, by injecting $105 billion into the system.

Of course, Fed officials laughed off concerns over a serious systemic
problem and explained away the spike as a result of a rare set of
circumstances and a “one-off” event. And yet, at the same time, the
central bank announced at least two more weeks of overnight cash
injections, each adding $75 billion into the market, “to help maintain
the federal funds rate within the target range”, as the official
statement put it. And that could only be the beginning, as after the end
of this period, the Open Market Trading Desk “will conduct operations
as necessary to help maintain the federal funds rate in the target
range, the amounts and timing of which have not yet been determined”. As
the Bank of America accurately described the implications of this move,
“For all intents and purposes, this will be equivalent to QE, with
scheduled purchases of securities. We estimate that over the first year,
the Fed would need to buy roughly $400bn of Treasury securities to
achieve an appropriate level of reserves, plus a buffer”.

The bigger picture

While the present conditions in debt markets might seem paradoxical
to most reasonable people, the massive distortions that have resulted
from the decades of monetary manipulation don’t stop there. Reckless
policies like NIRP and ZIRP that central bankers are now doubling down
on having interfered with organic market mechanisms for so long and so
extensively that accurate valuation and normal price-finding functions
have become almost entirely perverted. As the accumulation of debt is
systematically encouraged, as prudent financial planning and saving are
consistently penalized and as recession fears continue to steadily
climb, safety is nowhere to be found in financial markets. Prices of
traditional supposed ‘risk-free’ assets like sovereign bonds have risen
to such extremes that many ensure a loss for those who buy them and
negative yields are now becoming the norm, not the exception.

Decades of monetary manipulations, the now obvious global economic slowdown and this massive flight to safety have created such extraordinary conditions in debt markets that effectively invalidate one of the oldest and most widespread criticisms against precious metals. “Gold has no yield!”, mainstream commentators would so often respond when asked about safe havens. Well, it’s true, it doesn’t. But at least it doesn’t guarantee you a loss either, and during these absurd times, this is increasingly looking like a solid competitive advantage.

Institutional investors seem to agree, as many have had enough of the
premiums they have to pay for the privilege of buying government debt.
Inflows into gold-backed ETFs, vehicles widely used by institutional
investors to gain gold exposure, recorded their third straight monthly
increase and topped 100 tons in August, the highest point since February
2013. Naturally, while this shift represents a clear confirmation of
the climbing demand and interest in gold, conservative and responsible
individual investors clearly recognize the benefits of holding physical
precious metals, over trading paper gold. And so do central banks for
that matter, as they continue their gold buying spree unabated and keep
adding to their reserves. Despite the recent surge in the gold price,
near a six-year high, Russia and China are undeterred in increasing
their gold holdings.

Overall, despite the repeated assurances of politicians and central
bankers that everything is fine with the economy and that there’s no
reason to worry, the market dynamics, and their own actions, paint a
very different picture. And as more and more investors become
disillusioned with government debt, recognize the unsustainability of
the debt markets and seek out a real safe haven, the case for gold is
further strengthened.

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FBI Reform: Eurasia Review: The Next Race: The Geostrategic Contest In Space – Analysis


The numbers of countries and companies active in outer space have greatly expanded in recent decades, complicating this particular geostrategic domain. New “rules of the road” for space are called for. In this regard, the United States is well-placed to press other space-faring countries toward best practices and transparency to the benefit of all.

By Joan Johnson-Freese*

The convergence of multiple, complex strands of recent activity regarding the use of space and the protection of space assets is resulting in a space environment very different from the past. Formerly, the space environment was largely dominated by a very few countries.

All countries, however, were assured access through the 1967 Outer Space Treaty
ratified by 109 countries and signed by another 23, militarised but
deliberately not overtly weaponised, and anxiously awaiting the
development of a true commercial space sector rather than one fully
dependent on government contracts.

Proliferation of “NewSpace” Players

Today, a number of formerly nascent space programmes have matured,
there is increasingly bellicose talk – and policies – regarding the
overt weaponisation of space, and so-called “NewSpace” companies are
bringing the commercial space sector to life. All of these strands are
made complex by the dual-use nature of the vast majority of space
technology and the increasing characterisation of the global
geostrategic environment being generally dominated by Great Power
Competition (GPC).

Dual-use
technology is of value to both military and civilian interests, and when
it is military technology it is difficult to tell whether for offensive
or defensive purposes. Earth-focused satellites can be used for tasks
ranging from maximising crop rotations to weapons targeting. In the
United States (US), Atlas, Delta and Titan rockets used to launch
civilian payloads were originally developed as missiles. The same is
true for China’s Long March launcher family. 

Regarding
military space systems, the ground-based US missile defence system is
considered defensive by the US, but seen as having offensive
anti-satellite (ASAT) capabilities by some other countries – and was
demonstrated to have such capabilities through Operation Burnt Frost
in 2008 when a modified missile defence system was used to shoot down a
defunct US satellite. All this means that it is difficult to discern
the intended use of the space technology being developed or deployed by
space actors.

The Great Power Competition in Space

The uncertainty generated by dual-use technology has always been an issue but is now exacerbated within the atmosphere of Great Power Competition
that pervades Washington and other capitals. With Washington, Beijing
and Moscow all professing their own versions of America First/China
First/Russia First, GPC is rapidly shaping the global environment as one
of dominated by zero-sum competitions.

Broadly
speaking, issues that were once perceived as challenges are increasingly
considered threats. Protecting space assets is one such challenge cum
threat. While the acronym DIME is still used to describe tools of
national power – Diplomatic, Informational, Military and Economic – the
“M” is often the default tool for addressing perceived space threats.

Part of
the threat perceived by the US military is the resurgent nature of the
Russian military space programme, and the maturing of other space
programmes, especially China’s programme.
China, seeing the advantages space assets afforded the US during the
1990-91 Gulf War, has been intent on not allowing the US to get so far
ahead technologically that it could not breach the gap. 

Consequently,
China’s space programme today includes an expanding space science
programme, a human spaceflight programme that will likely soon reach for
the Moon, and a robust military space programme which tested a ground-based ASAT
in 2007 by destroying one of their own defunct satellites in a
high-altitude orbit. That test garnered China a great deal of criticism
due to the amount of dangerous space debris created, debris that other
satellites have since had to dodge. 

Subsequently,
China has not conducted any more impact tests, but instead tests ASAT
capabilities through more politically acceptable, non-impact missile
defence tests. China really set Washington on edge in 2013 when it
launched what it called a science mission to an altitude previously
reachable only by the US, and subsequently considered a “sanctuary
orbit” by the US where it could place its high value assets, thereby
potentially putting those assets at risk.

After China: India and Other Players in Space

Since 2013 the US has taken a more bullish attitude toward space
security. In the past the US went to great efforts to avoid the overt
weaponisation of space, using such Orwellian terminology as “offensive
counterspace” to describe capabilities with the potential to be used as
weapons. Now, however, the military openly professes to wanting the deployment of space weapons in the near term.
That rhetoric, not unexpectedly, quickly resulted in countries wanting
to keep-up-with-the-Joneses, evidenced by India’s ASAT test in 2019.

India
remembered the sting of being dubbed a nuclear “have not” in the 1968
Non-Proliferation Treaty. It was determined not to be left on the
outside again should those who had already tested ASATs again decide it
was in their interests to keep others from doing so.  

Initially
criticism of India was tamped down by rationalising that they had been
responsible about not creating dangerous debris. When the debris later
proved more than originally thought, and the idea of ASAT proliferation
sank in, even top Pentagon officials suggested that perhaps more “D” and less “M” was in order. The US has got itself into a position of “do as I say, not as I do”.

Add to all
of this NewSpace companies in the US and elsewhere seeking to
economically develop space in ways ranging from bringing down launch
costs, to tourism, to space mining, and there are more actors, more
activity and more challenges to US “dominating” space than ever before. 

Congested, Contested and Competitive

The
Pentagon describes the space environment as Congested, Contested and
Competitive and that raises the question of how economic development
will be affected by this new environment.

The Pentagon has also suggested that President Donald Trump’s directed creation of a Space Force is to protect US economic interests in space

But it is
not clear that businesses requested such protection and whether they see
the overt weaponisation of space as good or bad for them. One thing is
clear though, all activity – public or private, civil or military – is
dependent upon the sustainability of the space environment. 

Hopefully,
space “rules of the road” called for after India’s ASAT test will get
even a fraction of the attention (people and funding) that the creation
of Space Command, a Space Development Agency and the Space Force has.
Even a small fraction would be a quantum leap forward. The US position
in space is still such that, with commitment, it could lead other
spacefaring countries toward best practices and transparency to benefit
all.

*Joan Johnson-Freese is a Professor and the Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Chair of Science, Space & Technology at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. She writes extensively on space security, military education, and gender and security and contributed this to RSIS Commentary. The views expressed are those of the author alone and not those of the US government, the US Navy or the Naval War College.

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For the second consecutive year, the estimated number of violent crimes in the nation decreased when compared with the previous year’s statistics, according to FBI figures released today. In 2018, violent crime was down 3.3 percent from the 2017 number. Property crimes also dropped 6.3 percent, marking the 16th consecutive year the collective estimates for these offenses declined.
The 2018 statistics show the estimated rate of violent crime was 368.9 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, and the estimated rate of property crime was 2,199.5 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. The violent crime rate fell 3.9 percent when compared with the 2017 rate; the property crime rate declined 6.9 percent.
These and additional data are presented in the 2018 edition of the FBI’s annual report Crime in the United States. This publication is a statistical compilation of offense, arrest, and police employee data reported by law enforcement agencies voluntarily participating in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
The UCR Program collects information on crimes reported by law enforcement agencies regarding the violent crimes of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, as well as the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. (The FBI classifies arson as a property crime, but does not estimate arson data because of variations in the level of participation by the reporting agencies. Consequently, arson data is not included in the property crime estimate.) The program also collects arrest data for the offenses listed above plus 20 offenses that include all other crimes except traffic violations.
Of the 18,586 federal, state, county, city, university and college, and tribal agencies eligible to participate in the UCR Program, 16,659 agencies submitted data in 2018. A high-level summary of the statistics submitted, as well as estimates for those agencies that did not report, follows:
  • In 2018, there were an estimated 1,206,836 violent crimes. The estimated number of three violent crime offenses decreased when compared with estimates from 2017. Robbery offenses fell 12.0 percent, murder and nonnegligent manslaughter offenses fell 6.2 percent, and the estimated volume of aggravated assault offenses decreased 0.4 percent. The estimated volume of rape (revised definition) offenses increased 2.7 percent.
  • Nationwide, there were an estimated 7,196,045 property crimes. The estimated numbers for all three property crimes showed declines when compared with the previous year’s estimates. Burglaries dropped 11.9 percent, larceny-thefts decreased 5.4 percent, and motor vehicle thefts were down 3.1 percent.
  • Collectively, victims of property crimes (excluding arson) suffered losses estimated at $16.4 billion in 2018.
  • The FBI estimated law enforcement agencies nationwide made 10.3 million arrests, (excluding those for traffic violations) in 2018.
  • The arrest rate for violent crime was 159.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the arrest rate for property crime was 361.2 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • By violent crime offense, the arrest rate for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter was 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants; rape (aggregate total using the revised and legacy definition), 7.7; robbery, 27.2; and aggravated assault, 121.4 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • Of the property crime offenses, the arrest rate for burglary was 54.9 per 100,000 inhabitants; larceny-theft, 275.5; and motor vehicle theft, 28.1. The arrest rate for arson was 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants.
  • In 2018, 13,497 law enforcement agencies reported their staffing levels to the FBI. These agencies reported that, as of October 31, 2018, they collectively employed 686,665 sworn officers and 288,640 civilians—a rate of 3.4 employees per 1,000 inhabitants.
Caution Against Ranking: Each year when Crime in the United States is published, some entities use the figures to compile rankings of cities and counties. These rough rankings provide no insight into the numerous variables that mold crime in a particular town, city, county, state, tribal area, or region. Consequently, they lead to simplistic and/or incomplete analyses that often create misleading perceptions adversely affecting communities and their residents. Valid assessments are possible only with careful study and analysis of the range of unique conditions affecting each local law enforcement jurisdiction. The data user is, therefore, cautioned against comparing crime data of individual reporting units from cities, metropolitan areas, states, or colleges or universities solely on the basis of their population coverage or student enrollment.
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